Light Aircraft Pilot's Licence (LAPL) Aeroplane
PA28 Warrior II
PA28 Warrior II Instrument panel

General

The EASA Light Aircraft Pilot’s Licence (LAPL) Aeroplanes is a non-expiring “lifetime” licence. Once issued the licence is held unless it is provisionally suspended, suspended or revoked by the issuing authority or is surrendered by the holder

A LAPL(A) is only valid in all the EU countries with restrictions on aeroplane weight (maximum take-off mass of two metric tonnes or less) and with no more than four people on board the aircraft (including crew and passengers)

The LAPL(A) is different to other licence types in that it does not contain aircraft type or class ratings with expiry dates that need revalidation. They include privileges built into the licence itself, so a LAPL(A) won't have an SEP (land) rating with expiry date, but it will have stated SEP privileges which the pilot must keep valid by ensuring at least a certain minimum amount of flying is maintained. A LAPL(A) can however contain other (non-aircraft) ratings e.g. night, or aerobatics

Applicants for a LAPL(A) shall be at least 17 years of age. A student pilot for a LAPL(A) shall be at least 16 years of age before first solo flight

Applicants for a LAPL(A) shall complete a training course at an ATO. The course shall include theoretical knowledge and flight instruction

Licence Issue and Experience Requirements

Applicants for a LAPL(A) shall have completed at least 30 hours of flight instruction in aeroplanes or TMGs, including at least:

(a) 15 hours of dual flight instruction

(b) 6 hours of supervised solo flight time

(c) at least 3 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 150 km (80 NM), during which a full stop landing at an aerodrome different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made

(d) Part Med.A.030 states that a LAPL medical certificate is required for the holder/applicant of a LAPL(A)

(e) Part FCL.055 Language proficiency states an aeroplane, helicopter, powered-lift and airship pilots required to use the radio telephone shall not exercise the privileges of their licences and ratings unless they have a language proficiency endorsement on their licence in either English or the language used for radio communications involved in the flight. The Operational Level (Level 4) is the minimum required proficiency level for radiotelephony communication

Flight Training

The student pilot for a LAPL(A) shall obtain an appropriate medical certificate at least before his/her solo flight

At least 30 hours of flight instruction in aeroplanes or TMGs, including at least:

(a) 15 hours of dual flight instruction

(b) 6 hours of supervised solo flight time

(c) at least 3 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 150 km (80 NM), during which a full stop landing at an aerodrome different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made

Ground Training

100 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction covering the following subjects:

Air Law
Human Performance
Meteorology
Communications
Operational Procedures - Aeroplanes
Principles of Flight - Aeroplanes
Flight Performance and Planning - Aeroplanes
Aircraft General Knowledge - Aeroplanes
Navigation - Aeroplanes

Theoretical Knowledge Examinations

Applicants shall only take the examination when recommended by the ATO responsible for their training, once they have completed the appropriate elements of the training course of theoretical knowledge instruction to a satisfactory standard

The recommendation by an ATO shall be valid for 12 months. If the applicant has failed to attempt at least one theoretical knowledge examination paper within this period of validity, the need for further training shall be determined by the ATO, based on the needs of the applicant

The examination subjects are as follows:

Air Law
Human Performance
Meteorology
Communications
Operational Procedures - Aeroplanes
Principles of Flight - Aeroplanes
Flight Performance and Planning - Aeroplanes
Aircraft General Knowledge - Aeroplanes
Navigation - Aeroplanes

Examination Assessment
A pass in an examination paper will be awarded to an applicant achieving at least 75% of the marks allocated to that paper. There is no penalty marking

An applicant has successfully completed the required theoretical knowledge examination when he/she has passed all the required examination papers within a period of 18 months counted from the end of the calendar month when the applicant first attempted an examination

If an applicant has failed to pass one of the examination papers within 4 attempts, or has failed to pass all papers within either 6 sittings or 18 months counted from the end of the calendar month when the applicant first attempted an examination, he/she shall re-take the complete set of examination papers

Before re-taking the examinations, the applicant shall undertake further training at an ATO. The extent and scope of the training needed shall be determined by the training organisation, based on the needs of the applicant

LAPL(A) Skill Test

Before the skill test is taken, the applicant shall have passed the required theoretical knowledge examination

In any case, the theoretical knowledge instruction shall always have been completed before the skill tests are taken.

The applicant for a skill test shall be recommended for the test by the organisation/person responsible for the training, once the training is completed. The training records shall be made available to the examiner. The LAPL(A) skill test schedule is given below

Note: Use of checklist, airmanship, control of aeroplane by external visual reference, anti/de-icing procedures, etc. apply in all sections

Section 1 Pre-Flight Operations and Departure
Pre-flight documentation, NOTAM and weather briefing
Mass and balance and performance calculation
Aeroplane or TMG inspection and servicing
Engine starting and after starting procedures
Taxiing and aerodrome procedures, pre-take-off procedures
Take-off and after take-off checks
Aerodrome departure procedures
ATC compliance and R/T procedures

Section 2 General Airwork
ATC liaison: compliance
Straight and level flight, with speed changes
Climbing:
(i) best rate of climb
(ii) climbing turns
(iii) levelling off
Medium (30° bank) turns, lookout procedures and collision avoidance
Steep (45° bank) turns
Flight at critically low air speed with and without flaps
Stalling:
(i) clean stall and recover with power
(ii) approach to stall descending turn with bank angle 20°, approach configuration
(iii) approach to stall in landing configuration
Descending:
(i) with and without power
(ii) descending turns (steep gliding turns)
(iii) levelling off

Section 3 En-Route Procedures
Flight plan, dead reckoning and map reading
Maintenance of altitude, heading and speed
Orientation, airspace structure, timing and revision of ETAs and log keeping
Diversion to alternate aerodrome (planning and implementation)
Flight management (checks, fuel systems and carburettor icing, etc)
ATC liaison: compliance

Section 4 Approach and Landing Procedures
Aerodrome arrival procedures
Collision avoidance (lookout procedures)
Precision landing (short field landing), crosswind, if suitable conditions available
Flapless landing (if applicable)
Approach to landing with idle power  
Touch and go
Go-around from low height
ATC liaison: compliance
Actions after flight

Section 5 Abnormal and Emergency Procedures
(This section may be combined with sections 1 through 4. These items (*) may be combined at the discretion of the FE)
Simulated engine failure after take-off
*Simulated forced landing
*Simulated precautionary landing
Simulated emergencies
Oral questions

References

UK CAA Standards Document 19
Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC)
UK AIP
CAP 393 Air Navigation Order (ANO)
CAP 413 Radiotelephony Manual
CAP 637 Visual Aids Handbook
Questions and Answers for the PPL Course by Jim Stevens and Jeremy M Pratt
The Private Pilots Licence Course by Jeremy M Pratt
EASA Part FCL including AMC and GM
CAP 804
Commission Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011

Privileges

(a) The privileges of the holder of a LAPL(A) are to act without remuneration as PIC in non-commercial operations on SEP (land) aeroplanes or TMG with a maximum certified take-off mass of 2000 kg or less, carrying a maximum of 3 passengers, such that there are never more than 4 persons on board of the aircraft

(b) A LAPL(A) holder is not permitted to add to the licence an IR which would enable flight under IFR

(c) The holder of a LAPL(A) may fly under VFR by day, and by night if a night rating is held

(d) The LAPL(A) holder may fully exercise the privileges within the EU Member States only (see note)

Note: The LAPL(A) does not fully comply with the ICAO standards for aeroplane pilot licensing contained in the ICAO Annex 1 'Personnel Licensing'

Extension of Privileges to another Class or Variant of aeroplane
 
(a) The privileges of an LAPL(A) shall be limited to the class and variant of aeroplanes or TMG in which the skill test was taken. This limitation may be removed when the pilot has completed in another class the requirements below:
 
1. 3 hours of flight instruction, including:
(i) 10 dual take-offs and landings
(ii) 10 supervised solo take-offs and landings

2. a skill test to demonstrate an adequate level of practical skill in the new class. During this skill test, the applicant shall also demonstrate to the examiner an adequate level of theoretical knowledge for the other class in the following subjects:
(i) Operational procedures
(ii) Flight performance and planning
(iii) Aircraft general knowledge

(b) Before the holder of an LAPL can exercise the privileges of the licence on another variant of aeroplane than the one used for the skill test, the pilot shall undertake differences or familiarisation training. The differences training shall be entered in the pilot’s logbook or equivalent document and signed by the instructor.

Recency Requirements

(a) Holders of an LAPL(A) shall only exercise the privileges of their licence when they have completed, in the last 24 months, as pilots of aeroplanes or TMG:
(i) at least 12 hours of flight time as PIC, including 12 take-offs and landings
AND
(ii) refresher training of at least 1 hour of total flight time with an instructor

(b) Holders of an LAPL(A) who do not comply with the requirements in (a) shall:
(i) undertake a proficiency check with an examiner before they resume the exercise of the privileges of their licence
OR
(ii) perform the additional flight time or take-offs and landings, flying dual or solo under the supervision of an instructor, in order to fulfil the requirements in (a)

Carriage of Passengers

LAPL(A)
The holder of a LAPL(A) shall only carry passengers after having completed 10 hours of flight time as PIC on aeroplanes or TMGs after issue of the licence.

General
A pilot shall not operate an aircraft carrying passengers:

(a) as PIC or co-pilot unless he/she has carried out, in the preceding 90 days, at least 3 take-offs, approaches and landings in an aircraft of the same type or class or an FFS representing that type or class

(b) as PIC at night unless he/she:

(i) has carried out in the preceding 90 days at least 1 take-off, approach and landing at night as a pilot flying in an aircraft of the same type or class or an FFS representing that type or class

Weather Minima

Visual Flight Rules (VFR) in sight of the surface 1.5 km visibility outside controlled airspace or 5 km visibility in Class C, D and E airspace

 

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