Private Pilot's Licence (PPL) Aeroplanes
PA28 Warrior II
PA28 Warrior II Instrument panel

General

The EASA PPL(A) is a non-expiring “lifetime” licence. Once issued the licence is held unless it is provisionally suspended, suspended or revoked by the issuing authority or is surrendered by the holder. However, for the licence to be valid for any particular flight the medical certificate and relevant aircraft ratings must be valid

Holders shall not act in any capacity as pilot of an aircraft unless they have a valid and appropriate class or type rating, except when undergoing skill tests, or proficiency checks for renewal of class or type ratings, or receiving flight instruction

Applicants for a PPL(A) shall be at least 17 years of age. A student pilot for a PPL(A) shall be at least 16 years of age before first solo flight

Applicants for a PPL(A) shall complete a training course at an ATO. The course shall include theoretical knowledge and flight instruction

Licence Issue and Experience Requirements

Applicants for a PPL(A) shall have completed at least 45 hours of flight instruction in aeroplanes, 5 hours of which may have been completed in an FSTD, including at least:
 
(a) 25 hours of dual flight instruction
 
(b) 10 hours of supervised solo flight time

(c) at least 5 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 270 km (150 NM), during which full stop landings at 2 aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made

(d) Part Med.A.030 states that a Class 2 medical certificate is required for the holder/applicant of a PPL(A)

(e) Part FCL.055 Language proficiency states an aeroplane, helicopter, powered-lift and airship pilots required to use the radio telephone shall not exercise the privileges of their licences and ratings unless they have a language proficiency endorsement on their licence in either English or the language used for radio communications involved in the flight. The Operational Level (Level 4) is the minimum required proficiency level for radiotelephony communication

Flight Training

The student pilot for a PPL(A) shall obtain an appropriate medical certificate at least before his/her solo flight

At least 45 hours of flight instruction in aeroplanes, 5 of which may have been completed in an FSTD, including at least:
 
(a) 25 hours of dual flight instruction
 
(b) 10 hours of supervised solo flight time

(c) at least 5 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 270 km (150 NM), during which full stop landings at 2 aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made

Ground Training

100 hours of theoretical knowledge instruction covering the following subjects:

Air Law
Human Performance
Meteorology
Communications
Operational Procedures - Aeroplanes
Principles of Flight - Aeroplanes
Flight Performance and Planning - Aeroplanes
Aircraft General Knowledge - Aeroplanes
Navigation - Aeroplanes

Theoretical Knowledge Examinations

Applicants shall only take the examination when recommended by the ATO responsible for their training, once they have completed the appropriate elements of the training course of theoretical knowledge instruction to a satisfactory standard

The recommendation by an ATO shall be valid for 12 months. If the applicant has failed to attempt at least one theoretical knowledge examination paper within this period of validity, the need for further training shall be determined by the ATO, based on the needs of the applicant

The examination subjects are as follows:

Air Law
Human Performance
Meteorology
Communications
Operational Procedures - Aeroplanes
Principles of Flight - Aeroplanes
Flight Performance and Planning - Aeroplanes
Aircraft General Knowledge - Aeroplanes
Navigation - Aeroplanes

Examination Assessment
A pass in an examination paper will be awarded to an applicant achieving at least 75% of the marks allocated to that paper. There is no penalty marking
 
An applicant has successfully completed the required theoretical knowledge examination when he/she has passed all the required examination papers within a period of 18 months counted from the end of the calendar month when the applicant first attempted an examination

If an applicant has failed to pass one of the examination papers within 4 attempts, or has failed to pass all papers within either 6 sittings or 18 months counted from the end of the calendar month when the applicant first attempted an examination, he/she shall re-take the complete set of examination papers

Before re-taking the examinations, the applicant shall undertake further training at an ATO. The extent and scope of the training needed shall be determined by the training organisation, based on the needs of the applicant

PPL(A) Skill Test

Before the skill test is taken, the applicant shall have passed the required theoretical knowledge examination

In any case, the theoretical knowledge instruction shall always have been completed before the skill tests are taken.

The applicant for a skill test shall be recommended for the test by the organisation/person responsible for the training, once the training is completed. The training records shall be made available to the examiner. The PPL(A) skill test schedule is given below

Note: Use of checklist, airmanship, control of aeroplane by external visual reference, anti/de-icing procedures, etc. apply in all sections

Section 1 Pre-Flight Operations and Departure
Pre-flight documentation, NOTAM and weather briefing  
Mass and balance and performance calculation
Aeroplane inspection and servicing  
Engine starting and after starting procedures
Taxiing and aerodrome procedures, pre-take-off procedures
Take-off and after take-off checks  
Aerodrome departure procedures  
ATC compliance and R/T procedures

Section 2 General Airwork
ATC compliance and R/T procedures  
Straight and level flight, with speed changes
Climbing:
(i) best rate of climb
(ii) climbing turns
(iii) levelling off
Medium (30° bank) turns
Steep (45° bank) turns (including recognition and recovery from a spiral dive)
Flight at critically low air speed with and without flaps
Stalling:
(i) clean stall and recover with power
(ii) approach to stall descending turn with bank angle 20°, approach configuration
(iii) approach to stall in landing configuration
Descending:
(i) with and without power
(ii) descending turns (steep gliding turns)
(iii) levelling off

Section 3 En-Route Procedures
Flight plan, dead reckoning and map reading
Maintenance of altitude, heading and speed
Orientation, timing and revision of ETAs and log keeping
Diversion to alternate aerodrome (planning and implementation)  
Use of radio navigation aids
Basic instrument flying check (180° turn in simulated IMC)
Flight management (checks, fuel systems and carburettor icing, etc)  
ATC compliance and R/T procedures

Section 4 Approach and Landing Procedures
(* These items may be combined at the discretion of the examiner)
Aerodrome arrival procedures
*Precision landing (short field landing), crosswind, if suitable conditions available
*Flapless landing
*Approach to landing with idle power (SE only)  
Touch and go
Go-around from low height  
ATC compliance and R/T procedures
Actions after flight

Section 5 Abnormal and Emergency Procedures
(This section may be combined with sections 1 through 4)
Simulated engine failure after take-off (SE only)  
*Simulated forced landing (SE only)  
Simulated precautionary landing (SE only)
Simulated emergencies
Oral questions

Section 6 Simulated Asymmetric Flight and Relevant Class or Type Items
(This section may be combined with sections 1 through 5)
Simulated engine failure during take-off (at a safe altitude unless carried out in an FFS)
Asymmetric approach and go-around
Asymmetric approach and full stop landing
Engine shutdown and restart
ATC compliance, R/T procedures or airmanship
As determined by the FE: any relevant items of the class or type rating skill test to include, if applicable:
(i) aeroplane systems including handling of auto pilot
(ii) operation of pressurisation system
(iii) use of de-icing and anti-icing system
Oral questions

References

UK CAA Standards Document 19
Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC)
UK AIP
CAP 393 Air Navigation Order (ANO)
CAP 413 Radiotelephony Manual
CAP 637 Visual Aids Handbook
Questions and Answers for the PPL Course by Jim Stevens and Jeremy M Pratt
The Private Pilots Licence Course by Jeremy M Pratt
EASA Part FCL including AMC and GM
CAP 804
Commission Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011

Privileges

(a) The privileges of the holder of a PPL(A) are to act without remuneration as PIC or co-pilot on aeroplanes or TMGs engaged in non-commercial operations
 
(b) Notwithstanding the paragraph above, the holder of a PPL(A) with instructor or examiner privileges may receive remuneration for:
 
(i) the provision of flight instruction for the LAPL(A) or PPL(A)
(ii) the conduct of skill tests and proficiency checks for these licences
(iii) the ratings and certificates attached to these licences

(c) May fly an aeroplane for the purpose of aerial work which consists of:

(i) towing a glider in flight
(ii) a flight for the purpose of dropping of persons by parachute
In either case the PPL(A) holder, aeroplane and persons carried in the aeroplane or glider are members of a flying club

Carriage of Passengers

A pilot shall not operate an aircraft carrying passengers:

(a) as PIC or co-pilot unless he/she has carried out, in the preceding 90 days, at least 3 take-offs, approaches and landings in an aircraft of the same type or class or an FFS representing that type or class

(b) as PIC at night unless he/she:
 
(i) has carried out in the preceding 90 days at least 1 take-off, approach and landing at night as a pilot flying in an aircraft of the same type or class or an FFS representing that type or class
OR
(ii) holds an IR

Weather Minima

Visual Flight Rules (VFR) in sight of the surface 1.5 km visibility outside controlled airspace or 5 km visibility in Class C, D and E airspace

Controlled Airspace

Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) in class A, B or C airspace requires an Instrument Rating (IR)
IFR in class D and E airspace requires an Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) Rating or IR

 

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